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Published date Dec 24, 2018

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psychology chapter 1, (BBA SEMESTER 1)

Chapter 1
·       Introduction
·       Aims/Goals of psychology
·       Major trends
·       Two Greek word, psyche=soul/mind, logos=study/science
·       Rejected definitions due to inexistence;
1.      Study of soul     2. Study of mind     3. Study of consciousness
Consciousness is of two types; sub consciousness and unconsciousness
Behavior is of three types, cognitive (related to thinking), affective (emotional expression), conative (motor activity).
S.O.R = stimulus organism response
Accepted definitions; 1. Psychology deals with the activities of an individual in response to his environment. 2. It is the science of behavior and experience. 3. It concerns with scientific investigation of behavior. 4. It concerns with observable human behavior.
Aims/Goals of psychology:
1.      Positive science;  the role of science and its function in psychology is to describe how to control and predict human behavior
2.      Applied science; it is an applied behavioral science. It studies the behavior of learner in relation to learning.
3.      Scientific approach; it adopts scientific approach and uses scientific methods.
4.      Problems of behavior; it studies psychological and physiological behavior of the learner.
5.      Problem of individual difference; educational psychology studies individual differences.
6.      Developmental stages; psychology studies the nature of growth and development.
7.      Personality and intelligence; it studies the nature of personality and intelligence.
8.      Guidance and counselling; psychology guides and counsels the individuals.
9.      Group dynamics and group behavior; it studies group dynamics and group behavior.
10.  Research; it deals with latest techniques of experiment and research.
Major trends in psychology:
In Pakistan, research work has been undertaken in social, clinical and educational psychology. Counselling, experimental, physiological and others have simply got represented in limited numbers of study.
1.      Environmental psychology; it studies relationship of humans and all environmental aspects. Congested housing, unchecked rate of urbanization, industrial and municipal pollution have caused an overall public concern. It also studies the cause of decline in quality of life. especially in urban civilization. It studies the effects of excessive dust, noise, traffic, industrial smoke, heat and chemical pollutants on human behavior and personality, the effect of overcrowding, traffic hazards, and jams on human minds. It also studies the ways to encourage people to conserve energy and to make people aware of environmental factors leading to psychological and psychiatric disorders.
2.      Forensic psychology; it can be helpful in controlling crucial situations like hostage emergency, suicide threats and family scuffles. Psychologists can evaluate police officers with emotional problems. They can also analyze clues in order to construct personality profiles of those responsible for crimes. They provide counselling and psychotherapy and advise the inmates with emotional problems. Their skills are also widely utilized in courts in west.
3.      Population psychology; according to WHO and many other economy experts, a major part of planning and development is wasted due to population growth. The fruits of developmental planning never succeeds to reach the general public lagging behind the birth rate. Population psychologists are helpful in public education and general awareness on this issue. There are views that a lot more can be done to create more opportunities of earning and for betterment of living population.
4.      Community psychology; these psychologists do so many things in community situations along with specialized expertise. They apply psychological principles, ideas and point of views to help solve the social problems and help individuals to adapt to their work and living groups. These psychologist work for mental health. Healthy education, and public awareness against mental and physical illness. There are also social psychologists working to bring people and groups closer to each other to reduce prejudice or hostilities. In war situations, they help to keep up the public morale and encourage certain groups to participate in community decisions. They advise school systems to make their curricular meet the needs of community members. They also work for environmental and population issues for welfare of community. They are supposed to work for community on whatever aspects given to them.
Work with individuals; 1. Clinical psychology 2. Counselling psychology 3. Rehabilitation psychology 4. Psychotherapy 5. Psychological hypnosis 6. Mental retardation 7. Behavioural medicine 8. Child and youth service.
Work with institutions; 1. Consulting psychology 2. Educational psychology 3. School psychology 4. Psychologists in public service 5. Military psychologists 6. Society of engineering psychologists 7.  Consumer psuchology 8. Industrial ang organizational psychology
Laboratory and quantitative psychology; 1. Experimental psychology 2. Evaluation and measurement 3. Physiological and comparative psychology. 4. Experimental analysis of behavior. 5. Psychopharmacology.
Social development and social psychology; 1. Developmental psychology. 2. Community psychology. 3. Personality and social psychology. 4. Society for psychological study of social issues. 5. Adult development and ageing. 6. Population and environmental psychology. 7. Psychology of women.

Other specialized areas of interest; 1. General psychology 2. Teaching of psychology. 3. Psychology and arts 4. Philosophical psychology. 5. History of psychology 6. Humanistic psychology. 7. Psychologists interested in religious issues 8. State psychological association affairs. 

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