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Published date Dec 24, 2018

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Chapter 2
Research methods in psychology;
All scientific researches, including psychology, mainly depends on empirical observation which is of two kinds;
Naturalistic observation                            observation under controlled condition.
                             NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION;  
The experimental science in this situation observes and records data. It observes in a naturalistic method.
ð INTRASPECTION:- this word is made up of two Latin words,
Intro mean inward             spire mean to look.
It means looking inward. It simply means the observations of one’s own mental processes. It is also called subjective method. In simple words introspection is self-examination of one’s own mental processes. It is a sort of self-observation in which one perceives, analyses and reports one’s own feeling that take place in one’s mind during the course of a mental act.
MERITS OF THIS MTHOD:- It is a simple and available method. It gives us a direct and immediate insight into one’s own mental processes. It provides a foundation for experimental method.
                               EXPERIMENTAL METHOD:-
An experiment is an arrangement of conditions or procedures for the purpose of testing some hypothesis.
             Elements of experimental method:
1.     Experiment; a research or procedure used to test effects of a treatment.
2.     Experimenter; a person who conducts experiment. This person is professionally trained.
3.     Subject; an individual who is being observed.
4.     Variable; a factor that influences the observation. It has further three categories. One whose affects are studied in experiment and stands for the cause is independent variable. The effect of independent variable is dependent variable. The factors involving between stimulus and response, such as fast learning, socio economic status, home environment, comes under intervening variable.
5.     Hypothesis; it is a testable statement.
6.     Experimental group; a group that receives treatment during an experiment.
7.     Control group; a group that receives no special treatment during experiment.
Two persons, it requires two people experimenter and subject
Living organism, in this, the experiments are conducted on living organisms.
Study of variable, the design of experiment, overall plan of experiment is referred to as the design of experiment.
It is most scientific, reliable and developed method of an investigation.
The scope of this method is limited. This method is expensive and time consuming.
                                 THE SURVEY METHOD;
In this method, the scientists concern public opinion, attitude, prejudice, marketing problems and any others where public is required to be contacted. Often this method is not feasible to spend very long time in the field concerned to obtain data about all the individuals in a group or community. A good deal of valuable information may be obtained through a survey. While conducting on a survey, the investigator may use scheduled (written) questions and interviews to obtain data from selected group. He has to choose the group carefully as it is important to make the group a really representative sample of the larger group. At the time of introducing a new product the organizations conduct such surveys to find feasibility of marketing and prospects of the particular product.
                              STATISTICAL/META ANALYSIS
Statistical analysis will establish a correlation between two functions of intellectual development, prediction (by aptitude test) and performance in particular progress. This method deals with numerical data. It has to arrange, treat and analyse the numbers and figures.
                   The Clinical/Case History Method

The clinical method is an extension of Day book Method, employed in the study of child development. It provides solution to the individual’s social or emotional problems of adjustment…
In order to discover the cause of adjustment problems we explain the past history and present life situations on the basis of available information. This method also provides solution to the individual, social or emotional adjustment problems. This method involves three professionals. Examination of signs of physical illness is made by a physician, house and social conditions related are studied by a social warken, and clinical and psychometric psychologist administers various personality tests.
After probing the whole information and record, and considering the case in a meeting jointly, some kind of therapy may be recommended in some cases. In some circumstances some special kind of training, as change in home, or living setup is suggested.
a)   Compiling information concerning personality and emotional adjustment of individuals.
b)   Attempting to modify the behavior of individual concerned, in the interest of greater personal and social welfare.
Information about the client (the patient)’s past are gathered through interviews, and relevant test for diagnosis purpose and for the treatment therapy are used. Problems like poor performance of the child at the school, marital adjustment and any other behavioral, psychological disorders of neurotic (mild) or psychotic (severe) nature fall in the domains of clinical methods.
The clinical method is applicable to an individual. It focuses the individual’s case study.
The primary aim of clinical method id to grant maximum adjustment and welfare to the disturbed individuals. This method provides intensive study, valuable information regarding the adjustment and behavioral problems of individuals.
Draw backs;

This method is strictly restricted to the distributed individuals. The scope of this method is limited. This method requires mastery and skill on the part of clinical researcher should be mature and skilled in hand limy individual study cases.

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